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Cardiology Mnemonics

Anti-arrythmics: for AV nodes
"Do Block AV"

D igoxin

B -blockers

A denosine

V erapamil

Aortic regurgitation: causes
CREAM

C ongenital

R heumatic damage

E ndocarditis

A ortic dissection/A ortic root dilation

M arfan's

Aortic stenosis characteristics
SAD

S yncope

A ngina

D yspnoea

Apex beat: abnormalities found on palpation
HILT

H eaving

I mpalpable

L aterally displaced

T hrusting/T apping

Apex beat: causes of impalpable apex beat
COPD

C OPD

O besity

P leural, P ericardial effusion

D extrocardia

Apex beat: differential diagnosis for impalpable apex beat
DOPES

D extrocardia (don’t say this first!)

O besity

P ericarditis/P ericardial tamponade/P neumothorax

E mphysema

S hock/S inus inversus/S coliosis/S keletal abnormalities (e.g. pectus excavatum)

Arrhythmias
ARHYTHMIAL 3PC

A trial Myxoma

R h heart dis

HY pertension

TH yrotoxicosis

M itral valve dis

I HD

AL cohol

P neumonia /PE / Pericardial eff

C ardiomyopathy

Atrial fibrillation: causes
PIRATES

P ulmonary: PE, COPD

I atrogenic

R heumatic heart: mirtral regurgitation

A therosclerotic: MI, CAD

T hyroid: hyperthyroid

E ndocarditis

S ick sinus syndrome

Atrial fibrillation: causes
A SHIT

A lcohol

S tenosis

H ypertension

I nfarction/I schemia

T hyrotoxicosis

Atrial fibrillation: causes
ARITHMATIC

A lcohol

R h fever

I HD

T hyrotoxicosis

H ypertension

M itral stenosis/M I /M yxoma (atrial)

A SD

T oxins

I diopathic/I nfective endocarditis

C ardiomyopathy/Constrictive pericarditis

Atrial fibrillation: management
ABCD

A nti-coagulate

B eta-blocker to control rate

C ardiovert

D igoxin

Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia
"A goes with B"

Atropine is used clinically to treat Bradycardia

Beck's triad (cardiac tamponade)
3Ds

D istant heart sounds

D istended jugular veins

D ecreased arterial pressure

Beta-blockers: cardioselective beta-blockers
"Beta-blockers Acting Exclusively At Myocardium"

B etaxolol

A cebutelol

E smolol

A tenolol

M etoprolol

Beta receptor activity
"1 heart, 2 lungs"

Beta-1 receptors are primarily on the heart, and the airway is Beta-2 receptors

Bradycardia: regular
PAD HIM

P hysiological (athlete, sleep) /p aroxysmal

A V block (2°II, 3°)

D rugs (beta, dig, amiodarone)

H ypothyroid /h ypothermia

I cteric (severe)

M I

Congestive heart failure: causes of exacerbation
FAILURE

F orgot medication

A rrhythmia/A naemia

I schemia/I nfarction/I nfection

L ifestyle: taking too much salt

U pregulation of CO: pregnancy, hyperthyroidism

R enal failure

E mbolism: pulmonary

Coronary artery bypass graft: indications
DUST

D epressed ventricular function

U nstable angina

S tenosis of the left main stem

T riple vessel disease

Coronary artery disease: risk factors
HOPEFULSSS

H TN

O besity

P VD

E levated LDL

F MH

U p glucose - DM

L ow HDL

S moking

S ex - male

S edentary life style

Cyanotic heart diseases
1-2-3-4-5-T's

Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)

Transposition of the 2 great vessels

Tricuspid atresia

Tetralogy of Fallot

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (has 5 words)

ECG: causes of ST-segment depression
DEPRESSED ST

D rooping valve (MVP)

E nlargement of LV with strain

P otassium loss (hypokalemia)

R eciprocal ST-depression (in I/W AMI)

E mbolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)

S ubendocardial ischemia

S ubendocardial infarct

E ncephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)

D ilated cardiomyopathy

S hock

T oxicity of digitalis, quinidine

ECG: left vs. right bundle block
"WiLLiaM MaRRoW"

W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.

M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.

Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide

ECG: T-wave inversion causes
INVERT

I schemia

N ormality [esp. young, black]

V entricular hypertrophy

E ctopic foci [eg calcified plaques]

R BBB, LBBB

T reatments [digoxin]

ECG: dominant R wave in V1
WORD

W PW

O ld MI

R BBB

D extrocardia

ECG: ST elevation
ELEVATION

E lectrolytes

L BBB (Left Bundle Branch Block)

E arly Repolarization

V entricular hypertrophy

A neurysm

T reatment (eg pacemaker, pericardiocentesis)

I njury (AMI, contusion)

O sborne waves (hypothermia)

N on-occlusive vasospasm (prinzmetal’s)

ECG: pulseless electrical activity causes
PATCH MED

P ulmonary embolus

A cidosis

T ension pneumothorax

C ardiac tamponade

H ypokalemia/H yperkalemia/H ypoxia/H ypothermia/H ypovolemia

M yocardial infarction

E lectrolyte derangements

D rugs

ECG: exercise ramp contraindications
RAMP

R ecent MI

A ortic stenosis

M I in the last 7 days

P ulmonary hypertension

EMD arrest
4Hs 4Ts

H ypothermia

H ypo & hyper-electrolytes

H ypovolaemia

H ypoxia

T oxic (including drugs)

T rauma

T amponade

T ension pneumothorax

Heart compensatory mechanisms that "save" organ blood flow during shock
"Heart SAVER"

S ymphatoadrenal system

A trial natriuretic factor

V asopressin

E ndogenous digitalis-like factor

R enin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Heart sounds: 3rd heart sound
FIPPY

F ailure

I ncompetence (mitral/tricuspid)

P regnancy/Pill

P E/Pericarditis

Y outh

Heart sounds: 4th heart sound
SHIT

S tenosis (aortic/pulmonary)

H ypertension/Heart Block

I schaemic HD

T amponade

Heart valves
LAB RAT

Left Atrium: Bicuspid

Right Atrium:Tricuspid

In case of high LDL
STArT with STATins
JVP: wave form
ASK ME

A trial contraction

S ystole (ventricular contraction)

K losure (closure) of tricusps, so atrial filling

M aximal atrial filling

E mptying of atrium

JVP: characteristics of
MOP HAIR

M ultiple wave form

O ccludable

P ostural changes

H epatojugular reflex

A bove (fills from)

I mpalpable

R espiratory changes

LVF: management
FOAM

F rusemide 40mg iv

O xygen

A trovent (& Ventolin) nebs

M orphine 2.5 – 5 mg

Mitral stenosis: complications
PASTRI

P ulm BP up

A fib

S ystemic embolism

T ricuspid regurg

R ight heart failure

I nfective endocarditis

Mitral stenosis (MS) vs. mitral regurgitation (MR): epidemiology
MS is a female title (Ms.) and it is female predominant.

MR is a male title (Mr.) and it is male predominant.

Murmur attributes
IL PQRST ("Person has ill PQRST heart waves")

I ntensity

L ocation

P itch

Q uality

R adiation

S hape

T iming

Murmurs: questions to ask
SCRIPT

S ite

C haracter (e.g. harsh, soft, blowing)

R adiation

I ntensity

P itch

T iming

Myocardial infarction: complications
ABCDE x2

A rrhythmias/A neurysm

B radycardia/BP lower

C ardiac failure/C ardiac tamponade

D resslers /D eath

E mbolism /E xtra (VSD, pap muscle rupture)

Myocardial infarction: treatment
INFARCTIONS

I V access

N arcotic analgesics (e.g. morphine, pethidine)

F acilities for defibrillation (DF)

A spirin/A nticoagulant (heparin)

R est

C onverting enzyme inhibitor

T hrombolysis

I V beta-blocker

O xygen 60%

N itrates

S tool softeners

Myocardial infarction: basic management
BOOMAR

B ed rest

O xygen

O piate

M onitor

A nticoagulate

R educe clot size

Myocardial infarction: symptoms
PULSE

P ersistant chest pain

U pset stomach

L ightheadedness

S hortness of breath

E xcessive sweating

Myocardial infarction: treatment of acute MI
COAG

C yclomorph

O xygen

A spirin

G lycerol trinitrate

Myocardial infarction: therapeutic treatment
ROAMBAL

R eassure

O xygen

A spirin

M orphine (diamorphine)

B eta blocker

A rthroplasty

L ignocaine

Occlusive arterial disease
6Ps

P ain

P allor

P ulseless

P arasthesia

P aralysis

P erishing with cold

Pericarditis
DRUMSTICX

D resslers

R h fever /R A

U raemia

M I

S LE

T rauma

I diopathic

C oxsackie

X –ray

Postural hypotension
HANDI

H ypovolaemia / hypopituitarism

A ddisons

N europathy (autonomic)

D rugs (vasodilators / TCADs, diuretics, antipsychotics)

I diopathic

Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria
CASES

C arditis

A rthritis (migratory)

S ubcut nodules

E rythema marginatum

S yndenhams chorea

Rheumatic fever: Jones major criteria
JONES

J oints (migrating polyarthritis)

O bvious, the heart (carditis, pancarditis, pericarditis, endocarditis or valvulits)

N odes (subcutaneous nodules)

E rythema marginatum

S ydenham's chorea

Rheumatic fever: Jones minor criteria
4PA

P yrexia

P rolonged PR

P ast Hx

P ositive (ie ?)ESR/CRP

A rthralgia

Rheumatic fever: Jones minor criteria
CAFE PAL

C RP increased

A rthralgia

F ever

E levated ESR

P rolonged PR interval

A namnesis of rheumatism

L eucocytosis

Splinter haemorrhages
TRIP SAM

T rauma

R A

I nfective Endo

P AN

S LE / Sepsis

A naemia (profound)

M alignancy (haematological)

Supraventricular tachycardia: causes
SNAP

S inus tachy

N odal tachy

A fib

P aroxysmal atrial tachy

Supraventricular tachycardia: treatment
ABCDE

A denosine

B eta-blocker

C alcium channel antagonist

D igoxin

E xcitation (vagal stimulation)

Ventricular tachycardia: treatment
LAMB

L idocaine

A miodarone

M exiltene/ Magnesium

B eta-blocker

Secondary Causes of Hypertension (courtesy of Brian Dalton)
TRACKPADS

T hyroid disease (hyper-)

R enovascular disease (renal artery stenosis)

A orta, coarctation of

C ushing syndrome

K idney disease, chronic

P heochromocytoma

A ldosteronism (hyper-)

D rugs (e.g. oral contraceptives, decongestants, NSAIDS)

S leep apnea

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One Response to “Cardiology Mnemonics”

  1. 1
    sravani:

    too good..

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